Tag Archives: a look at

A Look At : DevOps and DNS – What Every Developer Should Know

Over the years I have had the to work alongside many really smart, switched on people in the development community. I’ve learnt from them many intermediate and experienced programming skills. Generally when it comes understanding the very basis of how the internet functions using DNS, most of these very same experienced developers haven’t got a clue.

I wrote this post to hopefully help pay back some of the awesome karma they  have earned helping me over the years, by teaching them something in return. Lets learn about DNS.

imageDNS is a huge part of the inner workings of the internet. spend a considerable amount of man hours a year ensuring the sites they build are fast and respond well to user interaction by setting up expensive CDN’s, recompressing images, minifying script files and much more – but what a lot of us don’t understand is that DNS server configuration can make a big difference to the speed of your site – hopefully at the end of this post you’ll feel empowered to get the most out of this part of your website’s configuration.

What I will in this post:

Why does DNS matter to you?

Well it’s simple – if you are a developer it matters to you because:

  • You own , and up until now your has taken care of your DNS for you – but you need to know what’s going on in case something bad happens…
  • Maybe the you have allows you to manage your own DNS using a web interface, but you haven’t a clue what you are doing.
  • The DNS that your webhost or ISP offers you is probably not the fastest – if your website grows over time, you probably want to setup your own DNS or manage it through a dedicated service such as DNSMadeEasy, ZoneEdit or DynDNS.

First up: How the internet works (DNS)

If you already know how this works feel to step ahead.

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In really simple terms, when you enter a URL and hit enter, apart from magical unicorns rendering the requested page in your browser window, the interwebs works kinda like this:

  • You want to visit to a domain name, so your PC first checks its internal DNS cache to see if it’s looked it up recently – if so it uses this record
  • Your PC then asks your DNS server (probably configured by your router or ISP when you first started your PC) for the IP address of the server hosting the domain name you want to visit.
  • Your ISP’s DNS server looks up the root DNS servers for the world to find out who takes care of the DNS configuration for the domain you want to visit.
  • Your ISP’s DNS server then asks this authorative DNS server for the domain name you want’s IP information, fetches it, caches it, and then returns it to your PC.
  • Your browser connects to this IP address and asks for a web page.

There are a number of different scenarios that play a role in special circumstances with the above but I’m not really going to cover everything in this post.

What DNS does do:

  • Converts hostnames to IP addresses.
  • Stores mail delivery information for a domain.
  • Stores miscellaneous information against a domain name (TXT records).

What DNS doesn’t/cannot do

  • Redirects users to a different server/site.
  • Configure which port the client is connecting to (not entirely true; SRV records are used for protocol/port mappings for services).

Tools for the Job

One of the coolest things about the tools you’ll need for this blog post, is where I tell you that independent of which operating system you are using, you almost certainly have everything you need to query and test the DNS configuration of your website installed right now without you even knowing

The Swiss Army Knife of DNS inspection is the command line tool NSLOOKUP. This is installed by default in nearly every OS you’ll ever need it on.

NSLOOKUP on Windows

NSLOOKUP on Unix/Linux/Mac OSX

Another cool thing the usage is the same on most platforms as well.

To run NSLOOKUP simply open a terminal/command prompt and type

nslookup

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The first thing you’ll notice about the pic above is that the first thing NSLOOKUP tells me upon launch is the current DNS server that it will use for its lookups.

By default NSLOOKUP will use your current machine’s DNS settings for its DNS lookups. This can sometimes give you different results from the rest of the world as your internal DNS at your place of work/ISP may be returning different results so they can route, say your office mail, to the internal mail server IP rather than the external internet/DMZ IP address.

Lets change this to use Google’s global DNS server to get a better global view (what others see when they surf the web outside my network) on our DNS queries, by typing;

server 8.8.8.8

Now if I query this blog’s domain name “diaryofaninja.com.” (ensure you place the additional period on the end of this query to avoid any internal DNS suffixes to be added) I should get back the A record for my domain; (A records are the default query type used by NSLOOKUP – I discuss DNS record types further in this post below).

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An overview of common DNS record types

Below is a simple overview of all the common types of DNS records and some example scenarios.

All records usually share the following common properties:

Value – this is usually the contents of the records. If it is an A record this is the IP address for that A record

TTL – this is the “Time To Live” in seconds for a DNS record and basically means that DNS Clients of Servers accessing the requested record should not cache the record any longer than this value. If this value is set to 3600 this means to cache the returned record’s value for an hour (these values are usually the reason that IT people talk about DNS changes taking “24-48 hours” as these values are usually set quite high on hostnames that are quite static so that they offer the best performance by being kept in cache.

SOA (Start of Authority) records

SOA records (start of authority records) are the root of your domain’s registration. SOA records are created by your domain name registrar in the parent domain’s DNS servers (in the case of a .com domain the SOA record is created in the DNS servers for the .com root domain. In an SOA record the hostnames or IP addresses of your domain’s DNS servers are stored. These tell the internet’s root DNS servers (mother ship DNS servers) where to ask for the rest of your domain’s DNS configuration (such as A, MX and TXT records). When a client (a web browser, a mail server, an FTP client etc.) wants to connect to part of your website, it asks the locally configured DNS server for the record –  the server in turn looks for the SOA records for your domain so it knows which DNS server to ask about it.

Consider these records as the source of “which DNS server stores all the information about the website I want to look up”.

Hostname (A and CNAME) records

A records store information about a hostname record for your domain name. These list the IP address that a client should talk to when using a certain hostname.

If you had an address of http://mywebsite.examplecompany.com into your web browser this would refer to the A record “mywebsite” on the domain “examplecompany.com”.

If you have multiple A records with the same hostname, clients will receive a list of all the records. The order of this list will change with iterate each time you query the DNS server – this is called round-robin DNS and it a simple way to spread load across multiple servers .

AAAA records are the same as A records, only they stores the 128bit IPv6 address of a server instead of the IPv4 IP address – as the world shifts to using IPv6 these records will gain more relevance, but if your webhost supports IPv6 its worth setting these records up now, so that any visitors using IPv6 can access your website.

A CNAME record (Canonical name) is basically  an alias for an A record. This tells whoever is asking, that the DNS information for the requested hostname is stored in another record somewhere else on the internet. This other record might not even be on the same domain name or on the same DNS server. CNAME’s are very powerful as they allow you simplify your domains DNS records by centralising the information somewhere else. ISPs and webhosts commonly use CNAMEs to centralise the DNS configuration storage for things like mail or web server’s by allowing you to keep all the configuration details on a parent domain name.

It is important to note that root records for a domain name (I.e the empty A record for mydomain.com) cannot be a CNAME. The simple hard and fast reason why, is that CNAME’s cannot live on the same node in a DNS forest as any other type of record – because the very nature of a CNAME record defines that all configuration for that node is stored somewhere else, and given you store other information at the root of your domain other than your A record (MX records for mail etc.) this would break every other record’s functionality. This is mentioned specifically in the RFC for DNS, section 3.6.2.

An example of CNAME usage, is when most webhosting company web servers have a hostname such as web0234.mywebhost.com

When setting up your website, your webhost might for instance make the “http://www.yourwebsite.com record for your website a CNAME that has the value web0234.mywebhost.com so that when trying to access “http://www.yourwebsite.com” DNS clients look up the IP address for “web0234.mywebhost.com”. This makes their life easier if the IP address for this web server changes, as they only have to update a single DNS record, instead of updating all their clients DNS records.

To reiterate this to make it crystal clear:
CNAME’s are not a redirection. They are a reference pointer for a hostname. All they tell DNS clients, is that the configuration information for the hostname being queried is the same as can be found by querying the other hostname.

Illustration – Visiting a website

In the case that you want to visit http://www.google.com your computer does the following:

  1. Using the local machine’s DNS client your operating system talks to the locally configured DNS server for your local network/ISP’s network.
  2. This DNS server inturn looks up the DNS server for google.com by first looking up the SOA record for google.com and then connecting to the DNS server listed.
  3. Your local DNS server then asks the DNS server for google.com for the A record listed for www – the google.com DNS server will return an IP address for http://www.google.com. Your ISP or local network’s DNS server, along with returning it to you, will then cache this record for as long as the TTL (time to live) property of the record says.
  4. Your browser then connects to this returned IP address listed on port 80 and asks for the web page.

All of the above happens in milliseconds – but you can understand that if the google.com DNS server is slow in responding this negatively affects your browsing experience.

A records and CNAME records have a TTL (Time To Live) property to indicate how long they can be cached for.

Mail (MX)

MX records are the internets way of telling mail where to be delivered. They list the hostname or IP address of the mail server that handles mail for a given domain name. If a mail server is looking to deliver mail to “examplecompany.com” it will look up the MX record for this domain.

MX records have both a TTL (Time To Live) and a Priority (a weighting to give the order in which they should be looked up).

Illustration – Sending an e-mail to a friend

In the case that you send an email to your friend at myfriend@otherexamplecompany.com your local SMTP mail server (usually at your ISP) does the following:

  1. Your mail server connects to its local network/ISP’s DNS server and asks for the MX record for otherexamplecompany.com.
  2. Your local DNS server or ISP’s DNS server looks up the SOA record for otherexamplecompany.com and then connects to the DNS server listed.
  3. It asks for the MX records for this domain and is returned a list of hostnames.
  4. it grabs the first hostname from the list (order in ascending order by Priority), runs a second query for the IP address of this mail server and returns this IP address to your mail server.
  5. your mail server then connects to this IP address on the SMTP TCP port 25 and delivers your mail.

Text Records (TXT)

TXT records are a powerful addition to the DNS standard that allow the storage of miscellaneous information for a hostname. Many web developers, system admins and the like use TXT records for the storage of information such as SPF records and DKIM public keys.

TXT records have a TTL (Time To Live) property to indicate how long they can be cached for.

Name Server Records (NS)

Name Server Records are placed in your domain’s DNS when you wish to store the configuration of part of your domain’s DNS on a separate DNS server. This can be very handy if you want to give control of a subdomain to another person/entity.

i.e. my site is http://www.widgetsareus.com and I manage all of the DNS for this domain, but I would like support.widgetsareus.com and any child sub domains of this domain to be managed by the company we outsource all of our customer support to – therefore I have setup an NS record for support.widgetsareus.com to point at our support partner’s DNS servers.

Setting up a domain from scratch

If you are setting up a domain you’ve just purchased from scratch you’ll need to do the following:

Setup your website (A records)

  1. Setup a DNS server to store the configuration for yourdomain.com
    This might be at your webhost, or might be a third party service such as DNSMadeEasy, ZoneEdit or DynDNS.
  2. Set the Nameserver SOA records for your domain name to the above DNS server’s IP address or hostname (at your domain registrar)
  3. Create a new root record to point at your webserver’s IP address (this is simply an A record with an empty hostname) in your domain name’s DNS forest.
  4. Create a new www A record that points at your webserver’s IP address in your domain’s DNS server
  5. Setup your webserver’s website to listen for the host-header of your domain name (IIS calls this a “binding”).
  6. Test your DNS as below.
  7. Try and access your site in a web browser.

Testing your website’s A record

In a command prompt/terminal type NSLOOKUP

Enter “yourdomainname.com.” (including the extra period on the end) and hit enter

Check that the returned record value/IP address is that of your web server.

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Remember to do the same for “www.youdomainname.com.” if you also use www. in your domain name.

Setup your website’s mail (MX record)

  1. Setup a DNS server to store the configuration for yourdomain.com  (Follow steps 1 and 2 above from your website if you haven’t already).
  2. Create a new MX record that points at your mail servers IP address or hostname.
  3. Setup your mail server to listen to receive mail for yourdomain.com
  4. Test that all the above is setup correctly using nslookup as per below.
  5. Try and send and receive email to and from your domain name.
  6. Setup SPF records, to verify your mail server’s ability to send mail on behalf of your domain name

Testing your website’s MX record

In a command prompt/terminal type NSLOOKUP

Enter “set type=mx” and hit enter. This set the query type to MX records.

Enter “yourdomainname.com.” (including the extra period on the end) and hit enter

Check that the returned record value/IP address(es) is that of your mail server.

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Investigating Common Problems

How do I check what DNS server is authorative for my domain name?

You’ve set up your websites DNS, everything is fine; then one day, everyone visiting your site is directed to a site that isn’t yours!

To check which DNS server is authorative for your domain name, first open a command prompt or terminal.

Type “NSLOOKUP” and hit enter

Type ”set type=ns” and hit enter. This sets the query type to NS (NameServer) records.

Type “yourdomainname.com.” and hit enter (make sure you put the extra dot on the end.)

Confirm that the nameserver’s returned are yours.

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How do I check what IP address my site is currently pointing at?

In a command prompt/terminal launch NSLOOKUP

Enter “yourdomainname.com.” (including the extra period on the end) and hit enter

Check that the returned record value/IP address is that of your web server.

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Remember to do the same for “www.youdomainname.com.” if you also use www. in your domain name.

What is split DNS?

Split DNS is when you run a separate DNS forest for a domain name both on your external DNS servers (for everyone else to see) and also internally for staff or local users to see.

This allows you to do things like:

  • Ensure local users talk to your mail server (or any other internal server) using the internal IP address, and internet users talk to your mail server’s external DMZ IP address.
  • Block access to certain sites by giving incorrect or different DNS results for these site’s domain names. This if often how many net nanny etc softwares work.

For some users my sites seems to be served from a different address – how do I check “what the world sees” vs. “what I see”?

Many things can occur that result in some people seeing different DNS results to others:

  • Your ISP/company’s DNS server may have an older cached record to the current live record
  • Your local computer may be caching the DNS record you are requesting
  • Your local DNS server may be fetching the records for your domain from a different authorative DNS server than the rest of the world.

How do you investigate these things?

The easiest way to investigate these things is to query an external DNS server that you know is good for the records you want, to get a better idea of how the rest of the world sees things.

A really good server that is easy to remember are the ones owned by Google. The primary and secondary DNS server for Google’s Public DNS system are “8.8.8.8” and “8.8.4.4” respectively.

You can use whatever DNS servers you think are more likely to see the correct values.

To do this, open a command prompt/console.

Type “NSLOOKUP” and hit enter

Type “server 8.8.8.8” and hit enter. This sets the DNS server we will query to the Google Public DNS server’s address.

Type “yourdomainname.com.” and check the resulting record values.

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SharePoint Online: Software Boundaries, Limits and Planning Guide

This article describes some important limitations that you might need to know for different SharePoint Online plans in Office 365.
For example, it provides information about number of supported users, storage quotas, and file-size limits. This article covers a range of plans:
SharePoint Online in Office 365 Small Business and in Office 365 Enterprise, plus standalone plans.
The limits that are listed are for paid subscriptions. You might see different limits for trial plans andSharePoint Online preview sites. 

Note    In Office 365 plans, software boundaries and limits for SharePoint Online are managed separately from mailbox storage limits. Mailbox storage limits are set up and managed by using Exchange Online. For more information about how Exchange manages mailbox limits, see Mailbox types and storage limits for Recipients.

In this article

SharePointOnline2L-1[1]

 

SharePoint Online Feature availability

Need help determining which SharePoint solution best fits your organization’s needs?

The various Office 365 plans include different SharePoint Online offerings. These include:

  • SharePoint Online for Office 365 Small Business
  • SharePoint Online for Office 365 Midsize Business
  • SharePoint Online for Office 365 Enterprise, Education, and Government

You can choose the plan that best fits your organization’s needs. Each person who accesses the SharePoint Online service must be assigned to a subscription plan. SharePoint Online can be included in a Microsoft Office 365 plan, or it can be purchased as a standalone plan, such as SharePoint Enterprise Plan 1 or SharePoint Enterprise Plan 2.

Limits in SharePoint Online in Office 365 plans

In this section:

Limits for SharePoint Online for Office 365 Small Business

SharePoint Online Small Business and SharePoint Online Small Business Premium have common boundaries and limits. The following table describes those limits.

Feature Description
Storage per user (contributes to total storage base of tenant) 500 megabytes (MB) per subscribed user.
Site collection quota limit Up to 1 TB per site collection. (25 GB for a trial).

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

The minimum storage allocation per site collection is 100 MB.

Site collections (#) per tenant 1 site collection per tenant.
Subsites Up to 2,000 subsites per site collection
Total available tenant storage 10 GB + 500 MB per user.

For example, if you have 10 users, the base storage allocation is 15 GB (10 GB + 500 MB * 10 users).

You can purchase additional storage up to a maximum of 1TB.

Personal site storage 1 TB per user, as soon as provisioned.

This amount is counted separately, and does not add to or subtract from the overall storage allocation for a tenant. Personal site storage applies to a user’s OneDrive for Business library and personal newsfeed. For more information, see Additional information about OneDrive for Business limits.

Public Website storage default 5 GB

A SharePoint admin can allocate up to 1 TB (the limit for a site collection).

File upload limit 2 GB per file.
File attachment size limit 250 MB
Sync limits 20,000 items in the OneDrive for Business library, including files and folders.

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

Number of users 1 – 25 users
Number of external users invitees There is no limit to number of external users you can invite to your SharePoint Online site Collections. For more information, see Manage external sharing for your SharePoint Online environment

When reviewing the information on the previous table, remember that the base storage limits for Office 365 for Small Business (10 GB + 500 MB per subscribed user) will affect some of these values. For example, although SharePoint Online for Small Business imposes a limit of 1 TB per site collection, your particular tenant might not have enough storage available to contain a site collection of 1 TB.

 

 Important    It’s a good idea to monitor the Recycle Bin and empty it regularly. Content in the Recycle Bin is counted against the storage quota for a tenant. For example, if the Recycle Bin on a site contains 5 GB of content, that 5 GB is subtracted from the available storage.

 

Limits for SharePoint Online for Office 365 Midsize Business

The following table shows the software boundaries and limits for the SharePoint Online Midsize Business plan.

Feature Description
Storage per user (contributes to total storage base of tenant) 500 megabytes (MB) per subscribed user.
Storage base per tenant 10 GB + 500 MB per subscribed user.

For example, if you have 250 users, the base storage allocation is 135 GB (10 GB + 500 MB * 250 users).

You can purchase additional storage up to a maximum of 20 TB.

Additional storage at a cost per GB per month. To buy storage, see Change storage space for your subscription.

 Important    You can’t buy additional storage for a trial subscription.

Site collection quota limit Up to 1 TB per site collection. (25 GB for a trial).

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

SharePoint admins can set storage limits for site collections and sites. The minimum storage allocation per site collection is 100 MB.

Site collections (#) per tenant 20 site collections (other than personal sites).
Subsites Up to 2,000 subsites per site collection.
Personal site storage 1TB per user, as soon as provisioned.

Personal site storage applies to a user’s OneDrive for Business library and personal newsfeed. This amount is counted separately, and does not add to or subtract the overall storage allocation for a tenant. For more information about OneDrive for Business, see Additional information about OneDrive for Business limits later in this article.

Public Website storage default 5 GB

A SharePoint admin can allocate up to 1 TB (the limit for a site collection).

File upload limit 2 GB per file.
File attachment size limit 250 MB
Sync limits 20,000 items in the OneDrive for Business library, including files and folders.

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

Number of users 1 – 250 users
Number of external user invitees There is no limit to number of external users you can invite to your SharePoint Online site Collections. For more information see, Manage external sharing for your SharePoint Online environment

When reviewing the information on the previous table, remember that the base storage limits for Office 365 for Midsize Business (10 GB + 500 MB per subscribed user) will affect some of these values. For example, although SharePoint Online for Midsize Business imposes a limit of 1 TB per site collection and a limit of 20 site collections, your particular tenant might not have enough storage available to contain 20 site collections of 1 TB each.

 Important    It’s a good idea to monitor the Recycle Bin and empty it regularly. Content in the Recycle Bin is counted against the storage quota for a tenant. For example, if the Recycle Bin on a site contains 25 GB of content, that 25 GB is subtracted from the available storage.

 

 

Limits for SharePoint Online for Office 365 Enterprise, Education, and Government

One or more Office 365 subscriptions plans can be included as part of your subscription. This is true for the following plan offerings:

  • Microsoft Office 365 Enterprise subscriptions (E1 – E4)
  • Microsoft Office 365 Government subscriptions (G1 – G4)
  • Microsoft Office 365 Education subscriptions (A2 – A4)
  • Microsoft Office 365 Kiosk subscriptions (K1-K2)
  • SharePoint Online stand-alone subscription plans (Plan 1 and Plan 2).

 

These plans have common boundaries and limits. The following table describes those limits.

 

 

Feature Office 365 Enterprise plans (including E1 – E4, A2-A4, G1-G4, and SharePoint Online Plan 1 and Plan 2) Office 365 Kiosk plans (Enterprise and Government K1 – K2)
Storage per user (contributes to total storage base of tenant) 500 megabytes (MB) per subscribed user. Zero (0).

Licensed Kiosk Workers do not add to the tenant storage base.

Additional storage (per GB per month); no minimum purchase To buy storage, see Change storage space for your subscription.

 Important    You can’t buy additional storage for a trial subscription.

To buy storage, see Change storage space for your subscription.

 Important    You can’t buy additional storage for a trial subscription.

Storage base per tenant 10 GB + 500 MB per subscribed user + additional storage purchased.

For example, if you have 10,000 users, the base storage allocation is approximately 5 TB (10 GB + 500 MB * 10,000 users).

You can purchase an unlimited amount of additional storage.

 Important    If you have a Government Community Cloud plan, you can purchase additional storage up to 25 TB.

10 GB + additional storage purchased.

You can purchase an unlimited amount of additional storage.

 Important    If you have a Government Community Cloud plan, you can purchase additional storage up to 25 TB.

Site collection storage limit Up to 1 TB per site collection. (25 GB for trial).

SharePoint admins can set storage limits for site collections and sites. The minimum storage allocation per site collection is 100 MB.

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

 Important    If you have a Government Community Cloud plan, the limit is 100 GB.

Up to 1 TB per site collection. (25 GB for a trial). SharePoint admins can set storage limits for site collections and sites. The minimum storage allocation per site collection is 100 MB.

 Important    If you have a Government Community Cloud plan, the limit is 100 GB.

Kiosk workers (plans K1-K2) cannot administer SharePoint site collections. You will need a license for at least one Enterprise plan user to manage Kiosk site collections.

Site collections (#) per tenant 500,000 site collections (other than personal sites). 500,000 site collections.
Subsites Up to 2,000 subsites per site collection Up to 2,000 subsites per site collection
Personal site storage 1 TB per user (100 GB for government plans), as soon as provisioned.

Personal site storage applies to a user’s OneDrive for Business library and personal newsfeed. This amount is counted separately, and does not add to or subtract the overall storage allocation for a tenant.

For more information about OneDrive for Business, see Additional information about OneDrive for Business limits later in this article.

Not available.
Public Website storage default 5 GB

A SharePoint admin can allocate up to 1 TB (the limit for a site collection).

5 GB

A SharePoint admin can allocate up to 1 TB (the limit for a site collection).

Kiosk workers (plans K1-K2) cannot administer Sharepoint site collections. You will need a license for at least one Enterprise plan user to manage Kiosk site collections.

File upload limit 2 GB per file. 2 GB per file.
File attachment size limit 250 MB 250 MB
Sync limits 20,000 items in the OneDrive for Business library, including files and folders.

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

20,000 items in the OneDrive for Business library, including files and folders.

5,000 items in site libraries, including files and folders.

Maximum number of users per tenant 1 – 500,000+

 Note    If you have more than 500,000 users, please contact the Microsoft representative to discuss detailed requirements.

1 – 500,000+

 Note    If you have more than 500,000 users, please contact the Microsoft representative to discuss detailed requirements.

Number of external user invitees There is no limit to number of external users you can invite to your SharePoint Online site Collections. For more information, see Manage external sharing for your SharePoint Online environment There is no limit to number of external users you can invite to your SharePoint Online site Collections. For more information, see Manage external sharing for your SharePoint Online environment

When reviewing the information on the previous table, remember that the base storage limits for Office 365 for Enterprises (10 GB + 500 MB per subscribed user) will affect some of these values. For example, although SharePoint Online for Enterprise plans imposes a limit of 1 TB per site collection and a limit of 500,000 site collections, your particular tenant might not have enough storage available to contain 500,000 site collections of 1 TB each.

 Important    It’s a good idea to monitor the Recycle Bin and empty it regularly. Content in the Recycle Bin is counted against the storage quota for a tenant. For example, if the Recycle Bin on a site contains 25 GB of content, that 25 GB is subtracted from the available storage.

 

 

Limits for site elements in SharePoint Online

There are also limits for site elements of a SharePoint Online site. Here are some examples:

  • List and Library limits    Different types of columns have different limitations. For example, you can have up to 276 columns in a list for columns that contain a single line of text.
  • Page limits    You can add up to 25 Web Parts to a single wiki or web page.
  • Security limits    Different security features have different limits. For example, a single user can belong to no more than 5,000 security groups.

 

The specific elements for the previous site elements are too numerous to list here, but you can learn more about them in the TechNet article Software Boundaries and Limits for SharePoint 2013. In this linked article, only the sections on List and Library Limits, Page Limits, and Security Limits apply to SharePoint Onl

 

Additional information about OneDrive for Business limits

Each user in SharePoint Online for Office 365 gets an individual storage allocation of 1 TB for personal site content (100 GB for government plans). Personal sites include the user’s OneDrive for Business library, a Recycle Bin, and personal newsfeed information.

All SharePoint Online in Office 365 plans include the same storage allocation for individual personal sites. This storage allocation is separate from the tenant allocation.

For more information about how users can manage their individual OneDrive for Business allocation, see OneDrive for Business library limits.

 

 

Additional Resources

 

For information about this: Go here:
Office 365 connectivity limits To learn more about Internet bandwidth, port and protocol considerations for Office 365 plans, see Office 365 Ports and Protocols.
SharePoint feature availability To learn more about SharePoint feature availability and the SharePoint Online service in Office 365, see SharePoint Online Service Descriptions.
SharePoint Online search limits To learn more about the search limits for SharePoint Online, see Search limits for SharePoint Online.
Mobile devices To learn more about opening a SharePoint Online site from a mobile device, see Use a mobile device to work with SharePoint Online sites.
File types To learn about file types that you can’t add to a list, see Types of files that cannot be added to a list or library.
Online URLs To learn about SharePoint Online addresses, see SharePoint Online URLs and IP Addresses.
Site languages To learn how to set language for your sites, see Change your language and region settings.
Planning and deploying SharePoint Online
Change storage space

 Important    You can’t buy additional storage for a trial subscription.

A Look At : SharePoint 2013 Site Templates

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SharePoint 2013 offers a vast variety of out-of-the-box site templates. One of the success factors of your SharePoint deployment is choosing the most suitable site template that meets your business needs.

I’ve been asked many times which site template can serve particular required needs and what differs one template from another, so I decided to write a quick overview of all the available SharePoint 2013 site templates and their common uses.

Collaboration Site Templates

  • Team Site – The most common SharePoint site template, mainly used by teams to collaborate, organize, create, and share information and documents.

  • Blog – a site on which a user or group of users write opinions and share information.

  • Developer Site – this site template is focused on Apps for Office development. Developers can build, test and publish their apps here.

  • Project Site – this site template is used for managing and collaborating on a project. Project site coordinates project status and all additional information relevant to the project.

  • Community Site – a site where the community members can explore, discover content and discuss common topics.

 

Enterprise Site Templates

  • Document Center – this site is used to centrally manage documents in your enterprise.

  • eDiscovery Center – this site is used to manage, search and export content for investigations matters.

  • Records Center – this site is used to submit and find important documents that should be stored for long-term archival.

  • Business Intelligence Center – this site is used for providing access to Business Intelligence content in SharePoint.

  • Enterprise Search Center – this site delivers an enterprise search experience.  Users can access the enterprise search center to perform general searches, people searches, conversation or video searches, all in one place. You can easily customize search results pages.

  • My Site Host – this site is used for hosting public profile pages and personal sites. This site can be available after configuration of the User Profile Service Application.

  • Community Portal – this site is used for discovering new communities across the enterprise.

  • Basic Search Center – this site is delivering the basic search experience.

  • Visio Process Repository – this site allows you sharing and viewing Visio process diagrams.

Publishing Site Templates

  • Publishing Portal – this site template is used for an internet-facing sites or a large intranet portals.

  • Enterprise Wiki – this site is used for publishing knowledge that you want to share across the enterprise.

  • Product Catalog – this site is used for managing product catalogs.

If none of those SharePoint site templates meets your needs you can always create custom templates.

 

This will be the focus of a future blog post as I am busy finishing a FREE Custom Knowledge Base Site Template

Some of the features will include :

  • Creating an ALM web and site template, setup life cycle management and deployment
  • Advanced functionality using Managed Metadata and BCS
  • Document Conversion using Word Automation Services
  • Using the search to build out our feature functionality
  • An Office 365 and SharePoint Online version