Category Archives: Deployment

How To : Develop and Deploy Azure Applications Deep Dive (Part 1)



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There are many reasons to deploy an application or services onto Azure, the Microsoft cloud services platform. These include reducing operation and hardware costs by paying for just what you use, building applications that are able to scale almost infinitely, enormous storage capacity, geo-location … the list goes on and on.

Yet a platform is intellectually interesting only when developers can actually use it. Developers are the heart and soul of any platform release—the very definition of a successful release is the large number of developers deploying applications and services on it. Microsoft has always focused on providing the best development experience for a range of platforms—whether established or emerging—with Visual Studio, and that continues for cloud computing. Microsoft added direct support for building Azure applications to Visual Studio 2010 and Visual Web Developer 2010 Express.

This article will walk you through using Visual Studio 2010 for the entirety of the Azure application development lifecycle. Note that even if you aren’t a Visual Studio user today, you can still evaluate Azure development for free, using the Azure support in Visual Web Developer 2010 Express.

Creating a Cloud Service

Start Visual Studio 2010, click on the File menu and choose New | Project to bring up the New Project dialog. Under Installed Templates | Visual C# (or Visual Basic), select the Cloud node. This displays an Enable Azure Tools project template that, when clicked, will show you a page with a button to install the Azure Tools for Visual Studio.

Before installing the Azure Tools, be sure to install IIS on your machine. IIS is used by the local development simulation of the cloud. The easiest way to install IIS is by using the Web Platform Installer available at Select the Platform tab and click to include the recommended products in the Web server.

Download and install the Azure Tools and restart Visual Studio. As you’ll see, the Enable Azure Tools project template has been replaced by a Azure Cloud Service project template. Select this template to bring up the New Cloud Service Project dialog shown in Figure 1. This dialog enables you to add roles to a cloud service.

image: Adding Roles to a New Cloud Service Project

Figure 1 Adding Roles to a New Cloud Service Project

A Azure role is an individually scalable component running in the cloud where each instance of a role corresponds to a virtual machine (VM) instance.

There are two types of role:

  • A Web role is a Web application running on IIS. It is accessible via an HTTP or HTTPS endpoint.
  • A Worker role is a background processing application that runs arbitrary .NET code. It also has the ability to expose Internet-facing and internal endpoints.

As a practical example, I can have a Web role in my cloud service that implements a Web site my users can reach via a URL such as I can also have a Worker role that processes a set of data used by that Web role.

I can set the number of instances of each role independently, such as three Web role instances and two Worker role instances, and this corresponds to having three VMs in the cloud running my Web role and two VMs in the cloud running my Worker role.

You can use the New Cloud Service Project dialog to create a cloud service with any number of Web and Worker roles and use a different template for each role. You can choose which template to use to create each role. For example, you can create a Web role using the ASP.NET Web Role template, WCF Service Role template, or the ASP.NET MVC Role template.

After adding roles to the cloud service and clicking OK, Visual Studio will create a solution that includes the cloud service project and a project corresponding to each role you added. Figure 2 shows an example cloud service that contains two Web roles and a Worker role.

image: Projects Created for Roles in the Cloud Service

Figure 2 Projects Created for Roles in the Cloud Service

The Web roles are ASP.NET Web application projects with only a couple of differences. WebRole1 contains references to the following assemblies that are not referenced with a standard ASP.NET Web application:

  • Microsoft.WindowsAzure.Diagnostics (diagnostics and logging APIs)
  • Microsoft.WindowsAzure.ServiceRuntime (environment and runtime APIs)
  • Microsoft.WindowsAzure.StorageClient (.NET API to access the Azure storage services for blobs, tables and queues)

The file WebRole.cs contains code to set up logging and diagnostics and a trace listener in the web.config/app.config that allows you to use the standard .NET logging API.

The cloud service project acts as a deployment project, listing which roles are included in the cloud service, along with the definition and configuration files. It provides Azure-specific run, debug and publish functionality.

It is easy to add or remove roles in the cloud service after project creation has completed. To add other roles to this cloud service, right-click on the Roles node in the cloud service and select Add | New Web Role Project or Add | New Worker Role Project. Selecting either of these options brings up the Add New Role dialog where you can choose which project template to use when adding the role.

You can add any ASP.NET Web Role project to the solution by right-clicking on the Roles node, selecting Add | Web Role Project in the solution, and selecting the project to associate as a Web role.

To delete, simply select the role to delete and hit the Delete key. The project can then be removed.

You can also right-click on the roles under the Roles node and select Properties to bring up a Configuration tab for that role (see Figure 3). This Configuration tab makes it easy to add or modify the values in both the ServiceConfiguration.cscfg and ServiceDefinition.csdef files.

Figure 3 Configuring a Role

Figure 3 Configuring a Role

When developing for Azure, the cloud service project in your solution must be the StartUp project for debugging to work correctly. A project is the StartUp project when it is shown in bold in the Solution Explorer. To set the active project, right-click on the project and select Set as StartUp project.

Data in the Cloud

Now that you have your solution set up for Azure, you can leverage your ASP.NET skills to develop your application.

As you are coding, you’ll want to consider the Azure model for making your application scalable. To handle additional traffic to your application, you increase the number of instances for each role. This means requests will be load-balanced across your roles, and that will affect how you design and implement your application.

In particular, it dictates how you access and store your data. Many familiar data storage and retrieval methods are not scalable, and therefore are not cloud-friendly. For example, storing data on the local file system shouldn’t be used in the cloud because it doesn’t scale.

To take advantage of the scaling nature of the cloud, you need to be aware of the new storage services. Azure Storage provides scalable blob, queue, and table storage services, and Microsoft SQL Azure provides a cloud-based relational database service built on SQL Server technologies. Blobs are used for storage of named files along with metadata. The queue service provides reliable storage and delivery of messages. The table service gives you structured storage, where a table is a set of entities that each contain a set of properties.

To help developers use these services, the Azure SDK ships with a Development Storage service that simulates the way these storage services run in the cloud. That is, developers can write their applications targeting the Development Storage services using the same APIs that target the cloud storage services.


To demonstrate running and debugging on Azure locally, let’s use one of the samples from This MSDN Code Gallery page contains a number of code samples to help you get started with building scalable Web application and services that run on Azure. Download the samples for Visual Studio 2010, then extract all the files to an accessible location like your Documents folder.

The Development Fabric requires running in elevated mode, so start Visual Studio 2010 as an administrator. Then, navigate to where you extracted the samples and open the Thumbnails solution, a sample service that demonstrates the use of a Web role and a Worker role, as well as the use of the StorageClient library to interact with both the Queue and Blob services.

When you open the solution, you’ll notice three different projects. Thumbnails is the cloud service that associates two roles, Thumbnails_WebRole and Thumbnails_WorkerRole. Thumbnails_WebRole is the Web role project that provides a front-end application to the user to upload photos and adds a work item to the queue. Thumbnails_WorkerRole is the Worker role project that fetches the work item from the queue and creates thumbnails in the designated directory.

Add a breakpoint to the submitButton_Click method in the Default.aspx.cs file. This breakpoint will get hit when the user selects an image and clicks Submit on the page.

protected void submitButton_Click(
  object sender, EventArgs e) {
  if (upload.HasFile) {
    var name = string.Format("{0:10}", DateTime.Now.Ticks, 

Now add a breakpoint in the Run method of the worker file, WorkerRole.cs, right after the code that tries to retrieve a message from the queue and checks if one actually exists. This breakpoint will get hit when the Web role puts a message in the queue that is retrieved by the worker.

while (true) {
  try {
    CloudQueueMessage msg = queue.GetMessage();
    if (msg != null) {
      string path = msg.AsString

To debug the application, go to the Debug menu and select Start Debugging. Visual Studio will build your project, start the Development Fabric, initialize the Development Storage (if run for the first time), package the deployment, attach to all role instances, and then launch the browser pointing to the Web role (see Figure 4).

image: Running the Thumbnails Sample

Figure 4 Running the Thumbnails Sample

At this point, you’ll see that the browser points to your Web role and that the notifications area of the taskbar shows the Development Fabric has started. The Development Fabric is a simulation environment that runs role instances on your machine in much the way they run in the real cloud.

Right-click on the Azure notification icon in the taskbar and click on Show Development Fabric UI. This will launch the Development Fabric application itself, which allows you to perform various operations on your deployments, such as viewing logs and restarting and deleting deployments (see Figure 5). Notice that the Development Fabric contains a new deployment that hosts one Web role instance and one Worker role instance.

image: The Development Fabric

Figure 5 The Development Fabric

Look at the processes that Visual Studio attached to (Debug/Windows/Processes); you’ll notice there are three: WaWebHost.exe, WaWorkerHost.exe and iexplore.exe.

WaWebHost (Azure Web instance Host) and WaWorkerHost (Azure Worker instance Host) host your Web role and Worker role instances, respectively. In the cloud, each instance is hosted in its own VM, whereas on the local development simulation each role instance is hosted in a separate process and Visual Studio attaches to all of them.

By default, Visual Studio attaches using the managed debugger. If you want to use another one, like the native debugger, pick it from the Properties of the corresponding role project. For Web role projects, the debugger option is located under the project properties Web tab. For Worker role projects, the option is under the project properties Debug tab.

By default, Visual Studio uses the script engine to attach to Internet Explorer. To debug Silverlight applications, you need to enable the Silverlight debugger from the Web role project Properties.

Browse to an image you’d like to upload and click Submit. Visual Studio stops at the breakpoint you set inside the submitButton_Click method, giving you all of the debugging features you’d expect from Visual Studio. Hit F5 to continue; the submitButton_Click method generates a unique name for the file, uploads the image stream to Blob storage, and adds a message on the queue that contains the file name.

Now you will see Visual Studio pause at the breakpoint set in the Worker role, which means the worker received a message from the queue and it is ready to process the image. Again, you have all of the debugging features you would expect.

Hit F5 to continue, the worker will get the file name from the message queue, retrieve the image stream from the Blob service, create a thumbnail image, and upload the new thumbnail image to the Blob service’s thumbnails directory, which will be shown by the Web role.

Next installment, we will look at the Deployment Process

System Center Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) 2012 as Private Cloud Enabler (3/5): Deployment with Service Template

By this time, I assume we all have some clarity that virtualization is not cloud. There are indeed many and significant differences between the two. A main departure is the approaches of deploying apps. In the 3rd article of the 5-part series as listed below, I would like to examine service-based deployment introduced in VMM 2012 for building a private cloud.

  • Part 1. Private Cloud Concepts
  • Part 2. Fabric, Oh, Fabric
  • Part 3. Deployment with Service Template (This article)
  • Part 4. Working with Service Templatesimage
  • Part 5. App Controller

VMM 2012 has the abilities to carry out both traditional virtual machine (VM)-centric and emerging service-based deployments. The formal is virtualization-focused and operated at a VM level, while the latter is service-centric approach and intended for private cloud deployment.

This article is intended for those with some experience administering VMM 2008 R2 infrastructure. And notice in cloud computing, “service” is a critical and must-understand concept which I have discussed elsewhere. And just to be clear, in the context of cloud computing, a “service” and an “application” means the same thing, since in cloud everything to user is delivered as a service, for example SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS. Throughout this article, I use the terms, service and application, interchangeably.

VM-Centric Deployment

In virtualization, deploying a server has becomes conceptually shipping/building and booting from a (VHD) file. Those who would like to refresh their knowledge of virtualization are invited to review the 20-Part Webcast Series on Microsoft Virtualization Solutions.

Virtualization has brought many opportunities for IT to improve processes and operations. With system management software such as System Center Virtual Machine Manager 2008 R2 or VMM 2008 R2, we can deploy VMs and installs OS to a target environment with few or no operator interventions. And from an application point of view, with or without automation the associated VMs are essentially deployed and configured individually.image For instance, a multi-tier web application like the one shown above is typically deployed with a pre-determined number of VMs, followed by installing and configuring application among the deployed VMs individually based on application requirements. Particularly when there is a back-end database involved, a system administrator typically must follow a particular sequence to first bring a target database server instance on line by configuring specific login accounts with specific db roles, securing specific ports, and registering in AD before proceeding with subsequent deployment steps. These operator interventions are required likely due to lack of a cost-effective, systematic, and automatic way for streamlining and managing the concurrent and event-driven inter-VM dependencies which become relevant at various moments during an application deployment.

Despite there may be a system management infrastructure in place like VMM 2008 R2 integrated with other System Center members, at an operational level VMs are largely managed and maintained individually in a VM-centric deployment model. And perhaps more significantly, in a VM-centric deployment too often it is labor-intensive and with relatively high TCO to deploy a multi-tier application “on demand” (in other words, as a service) and deploy multiple times, run multiple releases concurrently in the same IT environment, if it is technically feasible at all. Now in VMM 2012, the ability to deploy services on demand, deploy multiple times, run multiple releases concurrently in the same environment become noticeably straightforward and amazing simple with a service-based deployment model.

Service-Based Deployment

In a VM-centric model, there lacks an effective way to address event-driven and inter-VMs dependencies during a deployment, nor there is a concept of fabric which is an essential abstraction of cloud computing. imageIn VMM 2012, a service-based deployment means all the resources encompassing an application, i.e. the configurations, installations, instances, dependencies, etc. are deployed and managed as one entity with fabric . The integration of fabric in VMM 2012 is a key delivery and clearly illustrated in VMM 2012 admin console as shown on the left. And the precondition for deploying services to a private cloud is all about first laying out the private cloud fabric.

Constructing Fabric

To deploy a service, the process normally employs administrator and service accounts to carry out the tasks of installing and configuring infrastructure and application on servers, networking, and storage based on application requirements. Here servers collectively act as a compute engine to provide a target runtime environment for executing code. Networking is to interconnect all relevant application resources and peripherals to support all management and communications need, while the storage is where code and data actually resides and maintained. In VMM 2012, the servers, networking, and storage infrastructure components are collectively managed with a single concept as private cloud fabric.

There are three resource pools/nodes encompassing fabric: Servers, Networking, and Storage. Servers contain various types of servers including virtualization host groups, PXE, Update (i.e. WSUS) and other servers. Host groups are container to logically group servers with virtualization hosting capabilities and ultimately represent the physical boxes where VMs can be possibly deployed to, either with specific network settings or dynamically selected by VMM Intelligent Placement, as applicable, based on defined criteria. VMM 2012 can manage Hyper-V based, VMware, as well as other virtualization solutions. During adding a host into a host group, VMM 2012 installs an agent on a target host which then becomes a managed resource of the fabric.

A Library Server is a repository where the resources for deploying services and VMs are available via network shares. As a Library Server is added into fabric, by specifying the network shares defined in the Library Server, file-based resources like VM templates, VHDs, iso images, service templates, scripts, server app-v packages, etc. are become available and to be used as building blocks for composing VM and service templates. As various types of servers are brought in the Server pool, the coverage expanded and capabilities increased as if additional fibers are weaved into fabric.

Networking presents the wiring among resources repositories, running instances, deployed clouds and VMs, and the intelligence for managing and maintaining the fabric. It essentially forms the nervous system to filter noises, isolate traffic, and establish interconnectivity among VMs based on how Logical Networks and Network Sites are put in place.

Storage reveals the underlying  storage complexities and how storage is virtualized. In VMM 2012, a cloud administrator can discover, classify and provision remote storage on supported storage arrays through the VMM 2012 console. VMM 2012 fully automates the assignment of storage to a Hyper-V host or Hyper-V host cluster, and tracks the storage that is managed by VMM 2012.

Deploying Private Cloud

A leading feature of VMM 2012 is the ability to deploy a private cloud, or more specifically to deploy a service to a private cloud. The focus of this article is to depict the operational aspects of deploying a private cloud with the assumption that an intended application has been well tested, signed off, and sealed for deployment. And the application resources including code, service template, scripts, server app-v packages, etc. are packaged and provided to a cloud administrator for deployment. In essence, this package has all the intelligence, settings, and contents needed to be deployed as a service. This self-contained package can then be easily deployed on demand by validating instance-dependent global variables and repeating the deployment tasks on a target cloud. The following illustrated the concept where a service is deployed in update releases and various editions with specific feature compositions, while all running concurrently in VMM 2012 fabric. Not only this is relative easy to do by streamlining and automating all deployment tasks with a service template, the service template can also be configured and deploy to different private clouds.


The secret sauce is a service template which includes all the where, what, how, and when of deploying all the resources of an intended application as a service. It should be apparent that the skill sets and amount of efforts to develop a solid service template apparently are not trivial. Because a service template not only needs to include the intimate knowledge of an application, but the best practices of Windows deployment in addition to system and network administrations, server app-v, and system management of Windows servers and workloads. The following is a sample service template of StockTrader imported into VMM 2012 and viewed with Designer where StockTrader is a sample application for cloud deployment downloaded from Windows Connect.


Here are the logical steps I follow to deploy StockTrader with VMM 2012 admin console:

  • Step 1: Acquire the Stock Trader application package from Windows Connect.
  • Step 2: Extract and place the package in a designated network share of a target Library Server of VMM 2012 and refresh the Library share. By default, the refresh cycle of a Library Server is every 60 minutes. To make the newly added resources immediately available, refreshing an intended Library share will validate and re-index the resources in added network shares.
  • Step 3: Import the service templates of Stock Trader and follow the step-by-step guide to remap the application resources.
  • Step 4: Identify/create a target cloud with VMM 2012 admin console.
  • Step 5: Open Designer to validate the VM templates included in the service template. Make sure SQLAdminRAA is correctly defined as RunAs account.
  • Step 6: Configure deployment of the service template and validate global variables in specialization page.
  • Step 7: Deploy Stock Trader to a target cloud and monitor the progress in Job panel.
  • Step 8: Troubleshoot the deployment process, as needed, restart the deployment job, and repeat the step as needed
  • Step 9: Upon successful deployment of the service, test the service and verify the results.

A successful deployment of Stock Trader with minimal instances in my all-in-one-laptop demo environment (running in Lenovo W510 with sufficient RAM) took about 75 to 90 minutes as reported in Job Summary shown below.


Once the service template is successfully deployed, Stock Trader becomes a service in the target private cloud supported by VMM 2012 fabric. The following two screen captures show a Pro Release of Stock Trader deployed to a private cloud in VMM 2012 and the user experience of accessing a trader’s home page.



Not If, But When

Witnessing the way the IT industry has been progressing, I envision that private cloud will soon become, just like virtualization, a core IT competency and no longer a specialty. While private cloud is still a topic that is being actively debated and shaped, the upcoming release of VMM 2012 just in time presents a methodical approach for constructing private cloud based on a service-based deployment with fabric. It is a high-speed train and the next logical step for enterprise to accelerate private cloud adoption.

Closing Thoughts

I here forecast the future is mostly cloudy with scattered showers. In the long run, I see a clear cloudy day coming.

Be ambitious and opportunistic is what I will encourage everyone. When it comes to Microsoft private cloud, the essentials are Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 with Hyper-V and VMM 2012. And those who first master these skills will stand out, become the next private cloud subject matter experts, and lead the IT pro communities. While recognizing private cloud adoption is not a technology issue, but a culture shift and an opportunity of career progression, IT pros must make a first move.

In an upcoming series of articles tentatively titled “Deploying StockTrader as Service to Private Cloud with VMM 2012,” I will walk through the operations of the above steps and detail the process of deploying a service template to a private cloud